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antares star temperature

[10], Antares B is normally difficult to see in small telescopes due to glare from Antares, but can sometimes be seen in apertures over 150 millimetres (5.9 inches). 1", "LASCO Star Maps (identify objects in the field of view for any day of the year)", "The Radial Velocity Variations of a Orionis and a Scorpii", "On an Occultation of Antares by the Moon", "Sky watchers report occultation of Antares by moon",, "Dynamical masses of a selected sample of orbital binaries", "Orbits of Seven Edge-On Visual Double Stars", "The 2001 US Naval Observatory Double Star CD-ROM. The astronomers were able to create the star using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) in Chile and the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) of the National Science Foundation in New Mexico. On the other side in the whole of Antarctica, the star is circumpolar as the whole continent is above 64° S latitude. [44][45][46][47] The variations in the separation are often interpreted as evidence of orbital motion,[5][28] but are more likely to be simply observational inaccuracies with very little true relative motion between the two components. Rotation Period: 2 years [24], Antares was first reported to have a companion star by Johann Tobias Bürg during an occultation on April 13, 1819,[25] although this was not widely accepted and dismissed as a possible atmospheric effect. There is also considerable variation between values published by different authors, for example 75,900 L☉ and 97,700 L☉ published in 2012 and 2013. According to the astronomers, the star has a diameter that’s about 700 times larger than that of the Sun. Luminosity: 100 to 200 times the Sun. Antares can also be occulted by the planets, e.g. [39], Antares illuminates in the foreground parts of the Rho Ophiuchi cloud complex. There is no obvious periodicity, but statistical analyses have suggested periods of 1,733 days or 1650±640 days. : 'fiery star') because of its reddish appearance. Antares appears in the flag of Brazil, which displays 27 stars, each representing a federated unit of Brazil. Diameter: Approx 22 million miles (36 million km) - 26 times the Sun. Even in 1928, it was calculated that the size of the star must vary by about 20%. It … [31] The brightness has been monitored by the American Association of Variable Star Observers since 1945,[32] and it has been classified as an LC slow irregular variable star, whose apparent magnitude slowly varies between extremes of +0.6 and +1.6, although usually near magnitude +1.0. It is literally found in the heart of the scorpion at 9º 47′ Sagittarius. Antares B is a magnitude 5.5 blue-white main-sequence star of spectral type B2.5V; it also has numerous unusual spectral lines suggesting it has been polluted by matter ejected by Antares. The event was visible in much of southern Asia and the Middle East. [4] Due to the nature of the star, the derived parallax measurements have large errors, so that the true distance of Antares is approximately 550 light-years (170 parsecs) from the Sun. [26] It was then observed by Scottish astronomer James William Grant FRSE while in India on 23 July 1844. Through the data collected by ALMA and the VLA, the astronomers were able to create a radio map of the massive star’s atmosphere. The ancient Chinese called Antares 心宿二 (Xīnxiù'èr, "second star of the Heart"), because it was the second star of the mansion Xin (心). [49] In addition, Antares appears to pulsate, varying its radius by 19%. Antares is a massive star that lies in the constellation of Scorpius. As noted by the astronomers, Antares’ chromosphere is about 2.5 times the red supergiant’s radius. [29][30], In 1952, Antares was reported to vary in brightness. The WGSN's first bulletin of July 2016[19] included a table of the first two batches of names approved by the WGSN, which included Antares for the star α Scorpii A. A team of astronomers has created an updated map of the star known as Antares, which accurately shows just how massive the red supergiant really is. [2] No separate long secondary period has been detected,[33] although it has been suggested that primary periods longer than a thousand days are analogous to long secondary periods. Proxima Centauri is a red dwarf. The Kulin Kooris saw Antares (Balayang) as the brother of Bunjil (Altair).[59]. The Antares system star system is approximately 170pc from Terra, and is located in a Coreward/Corespinward direction from Terra at bearing 351.9o Galactic Longitude and +15.1o North] Galactic Latitude. Spectroscopic examination of the energy states in the outflow of matter from the companion star suggests that it is over 220 AU beyond the primary (more than 110 billion km). [25] Antares B appears a profound blue or bluish-green color, in contrast to the orange-red Antares. [citation needed], α Scorpii is a double star that are thought to form a binary system. [57] This had been directly translated from the Ancient Greek Καρδία Σκορπίου Kardia Skorpiū. According to their study, the readings taken by ALMA and the VLA indicated that the chromosphere’s temperature is cooler compared to previous observations. [2], Research published in 2018 demonstrated that Ngarrindjeri Aboriginal people from South Australia observed the variability of Antares and incorporated it into their oral traditions as Waiyungari (meaning 'red man').[34]. Antares is easy to locate near the southern horizon from northern latitudes from late spring to early fall. Antares appears as a single star when viewed with the naked eye, but it is actually a binary star, with its two components called α Scorpii A and α Scorpii B. The Wotjobaluk Koori people of Victoria, Australia, knew Antares as Djuit, son of Marpean-kurrk (Arcturus); the stars on each side represented his wives. [41], The pair have a projected separation of about 529 astronomical units (AU) (≈ 80 billion km) at the estimated distance of Antares, giving a minimum value for the distance between them. [58], In Persia Antares was known as Satevis, one of the four "royal stars". Rēhua is father of Puanga/Puaka (Rigel), an important star in the calculation of the Māori calendar. [51] Interferometry allows synthesis of a view of the stellar disc, which is then represented as a limb-darkened disk surrounded by an extended atmosphere. “We found that the chromosphere is 'lukewarm' rather than hot, in stellar temperatures,” Eamon O’Gorman of the Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies and lead author of the study said in a statement. The mass of the star is approximately 12.5 MSol. The Hipparcos satellite's trigonometric parallax of 5.89±1.00 mas[52] leads to a radius of about 680 R☉. The illuminated cloud is sometimes called Antares Nebula or otherwise identified as VdB 107, Ced 132, DG 141, LBN 1107 and Magakian 668. Antares is a member of the Upper Scorpius subgroup of the association, which contains thousands of stars with a mean age of 11 million years, about 170 parsecs (550 ly) from Earth. And that jacks up the core’s temperature. Radial velocity variations were observed in the spectrum of Antares in the early 20th century[22] and attempts were made to derive spectroscopic orbits. [23] It became apparent that the small variations could not be due to orbital motion, and were actually caused by pulsation of the star's atmosphere. [48], Like most cool supergiants, Antares's size has much uncertainty due to the tenuous and translucent nature of the extended outer regions of the star. Antares is visible all night around May 31 of each year, when the star is at opposition to the Sun. Antares is the alpha star in constellation Scorpio. Antares (star) is a binary star system composed of a pinkish-orange class M1.5 supergiant star with a diameter of more than 700 times that of Sol, orbited by a blue-white main sequence star of spectral type B2.5. To put its size into perspective, the Sun’s chromosphere is only about 0.5% of its radius. Defining an effective temperature is difficult due to spectral lines being generated at different depths in the atmosphere, and linear measurements produce different results depending on the wavelength observed. Often referred to as "the heart of the scorpion", Antares is flanked by σ Scorpii and τ Scorpii near the center of the constellation. For two to three weeks on either side of November 30 Antares is not visible in the night sky, because it is near conjunction with the Sun. [26][25][28], In the Babylonian star catalogues dating from at least 1100 BCE, Antares was called GABA GIR.TAB, "the Breast of the Scorpion". Temperature: Approx 4000C (7200F) Age: Approx 10 billion years old . The best calculated orbit for the stars is considered to be unreliable. [21] In higher northern latitudes, Antares is only visible low in the south in summertime. I. The Washington Double Star Catalog", "Observation of 23 Supernovae That Exploded <300 pc from Earth during the past 300 kyr", Best Ever Image of a Star’s Surface and Atmosphere - First map of motion of material on a star other than the Sun,, Articles containing Ancient Greek (to 1453)-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2020, Articles containing Chinese-language text, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 10 October 2020, at 23:33. Fixed star Antares represents one of the important four Archangels stars. The brighter of the pair is the red supergiant, while the fainter is a hot main sequence star of magnitude 5.5. α Scorpii (Latinised to Alpha Scorpii) is the star's Bayer designation. [12] Some scholars have speculated that the star may have been named after Antar, or Antarah ibn Shaddad, the Arab warrior-hero celebrated in the pre-Islamic poems Mu'allaqat. Visually, its luminosity is about 10,000 times that of Sol but overall, taking into account that the star radiates a considerable part of its energy in the infrared part of the spectrum the luminosity equals roughly 65,000 times (an absolute magnitude of -5.28). Betelgeuse, Antares: Subtypes Within each stellar type, stars are placed into subclasses (from 0 to 9) based on its position within the scale. For other uses, see, Illumination of Rho Ophiuchi cloud complex, Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) Sky Survey Atlas, American Association of Variable Star Observers, Stars and planetary systems in fiction § Antares (Alpha Scorpii), "Multi-component absorption lines in the HST spectra of α Scorpii B", "Bulletin of the IAU Working Group on Star Names, No. Antares is the brightest, most massive, and most evolved stellar member of the nearest OB association, the Scorpius–Centaurus Association.

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