habu snake bite

Guidelines for the management of snake-bites. (2010). Oyama, E., & Takahashi, H. (2017). Aird, S. D., Aggarwal, S., Villar-Briones, A., Tin, M. M. Y., Terada, K., & Mikheyev, A. S. (2015). Box 193, Herston QLD 4029 AustraliaEmail: admin@snakebiteinitiative.orgWebsite: https://www.snakebiteinitiative.org, African Snakebite Institute (ASI)Poison Information Helpline: 0861 555 777Phone: +27 82 494 2039Email: admin@asiorg.co.zaWebsite: https://www.africansnakebiteinstitute.com, Advocates for Snake PreservationPO Box 2752Silver City, New Mexico 88062Phone: (520) 333-6957Website: https://www.snakes.ngo, Minutes To DieWebsite: http://minutestodie.com, The Asclepius Snakebite FoundationEmail: info@snakebitefoundation.orgWebsite: https://www.snakebitefoundation.org, http://snakedatabase.org/pages/ld50.php (accessed on 03/08/2019), http://snakedatabase.org/species/Protobothrops/elegans (accessed on 03/08/2019), https://www.who.int/snakebites/en/ (accessed on 03/08/2019), https://www.who.int/snakebites/resources/9789290225300/en/ (accessed on 03/08/2019), https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/snakebite-envenoming (accessed on 03/08/2019), http://www.toxinology.com/fusebox.cfm?fuseaction=main.snakes.display&id=SN0093 (accessed on 03/08/2019), http://baikada.com/JSM/archives/16 (accessed on 03/08/2019), https://www.loststory.net/tips/sakishima-habu (accessed on 03/08/2019), https://phys.org/news/2017-10-okinawan-pit-viper-genome-reveals.html (accessed on 03/08/2019), https://www.researchgate.net/publication/9929789_Trimeresurus_Elegans_Gray_1849_the_Sakishima_Habu_a_Venomous_Pit_Viper_from_the_Ryukyu_Islands (accessed on 03/08/2019), https://www.pref.okinawa.jp/site/hoken/eiken/eisei/documents/habu_english_leaflet.pdf (accessed on 03/08/2019), http://www.japanupdate.com/2014/07/habu-snakes-of-okinawa/ (accessed on 03/08/2019). Apart from this, symptomatic treatment is necessary, which may include pain medication and respiratory support. Snake venoms are integrated systems, but abundant venom proteins evolve more rapidly. The sakishima habu (Protobothrops elegans) is a venomous snake that is found only in the Ryuku Islands, a chain of islands that is part of Japan. Phillips, D. J., Swenson, S. D., Francis, S., Markland, J., & Mackessy, S. P. (2010). Your healthcare provider may perform additional tests to rule out other clinical conditions to arrive at a definitive diagnosis. Thus, it is important to always consult a qualified healthcare provider promptly, Complete physical examination with comprehensive evaluation of medical history; a physical examination of the affected site by the physician may be normally sufficient to diagnose a snake bite, The individual may be asked to provide an account (history) of the events that occurred (what took place and how), if possible, Assessment of the signs and symptoms exhibited by the individual may be carefully observed, Blood tests that may include: (many of these tests are repeated over the course of treatment), Complete blood count (CBC) with differential and platelet count, Hematocrit blood test: Hematocrit is the proportion of blood that is made up of red blood cells, Prothrombin time (PT) and partial thromboplastin time (PTT) tests, Serum electrolytes including blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine levels, Urine test or urinalysis to test for free protein, myoglobin, and hemoglobin levels, Continuous urine output monitoring is helpful to determine damage to the kidneys, if any, Multiple bites, causing injection of a large quantity of venom, Blood clotting defects resulting in severe internal bleeding may take place, Occasionally, disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) resulting in blood clot formation in the body, Severe deep tissue and muscle damage of the affected leg or hand, which can result in superimposed infections and gangrene formation, Increased pressure causing compartment syndrome, which is an urgent medical condition, Loss of limb function; permanent disability, Rhabdomyolysis from injury to the muscles, caused due to compartment syndrome, Some individuals may develop an allergic reaction, such as anaphylaxis, to the antivenom that may be serious. The complications of Sakishima Habu Snake Bite may include: Presence of misleading symptoms due to fear and anxiety, which may be also aggravated by those around the individual, such as one’s family members, can sometimes result in inappropriate or over-treatment. Sakishima habu preys on small rodents and amphibians, including birds, It is mostly a diurnal reptile that can be found in the forests, at the edge of forests (clearances), and near human cultivations, among bamboo and sugarcane crops. Oyama, E., & Takahashi, H. (2015). Handbook of venoms and toxins of reptiles, 139, 154. Novel apigenin based small molecule that targets snake venom metalloproteases. The snake belongs to the subspecies of pit vipers, family Viperidae, and is also known as the elegant pitviper, Pit vipers are termed so, due to the presence of certain heat-sensing organs located in a recess/notch between their eyes and nostrils. There have been cases where victims report the loss of motor function in hands and legs following treatment. However, the healthcare provider will determine whether antibiotics administration is necessary or not, based on one’s individual circumstances, Consultation with a medical toxicologist is recommended for all cases requiring the administration of anti-snake venom, Even though antivenom therapy is the key treatment for systemic envenomation; on its own, it may never be adequate enough to completely resolve the condition. Monovalent antivenom neutralizes venom of a single snake species only, whereas polyvalent antivenom can neutralize the venom of several snake species. Also, if possible, never venture out alone (always have someone along with you), Be on the lookout for snakes and other animals while trekking or hiking; also, if you are with a pet, do not allow the pet to wander away, Always allow snakes crossing your path the right of way, Always stay on established paths and clearings, while walking in the woods, grasslands, or through thick undergrowths, Avoid picking up firewood sticks, stones, or rocks without checking the area for any concealed creatures, Always check before sitting on dead tree logs, stumps, or a pile of rocks; use a stick to stir or probe around the area, Do not reach out to move or hold bushes or tree branches without properly examining them for any camouflaged creatures such as snakes, Watch where you place your hands while climbing a ledge, trees, rocky slopes, or mountains, Carry a snake bite kit, if possible, when traveling through areas containing highly venomous snake species, Avoiding being outdoors at night in forested areas; be careful while camping outdoors, Avoid tall grassy areas or thick bushes; if you plan to explore the area, use heavy boots and thick pants, While walking outdoors at night, use a flashlight or lamp and make constant noise (singing or talking to others) or large stomping sounds that may alert the snake to move away from the region, Ensure that employers provide adequate protective clothing (gloves, boots, etc.)

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